Thanks for your post. It would be very unlikely you would carry chlamydia on your hands, or under your fingernails, and then give it to a partner a week later. Chlamydia is transmitted by genital to genital, genital to anal, and genital/anal to oral contact. Condom use can reduce the risk of transmission.
Many individuals, especially women but sometimes men, have no obvious symptoms of chlamydia (it would be unlikely to carry the infection for years without having some indication, though). It's generally recommended that both partners be treated, and not have sex until both have been cured. It's a good idea for you to see your healthcare provider, or perhaps call your city/county health department.
Hope this helps,